Sewage Treatment Process 101

Flow chart of Sewage Treament Plant STP
  1. Preliminary Treatment (Grit Screening and Sedimentation) - Separates larger solid particles from the sewage using grit screen.
  2. Primary Treatment (Anaerobic Chamber)- Effective removal of BODs (Biological Oxygen Demand), CODs (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and Ammonia in the absence of air/oxygen through biological process of using activated sludge that naturally reduces BODs and converts Ammonia to Nitrates.
  3. Primary Denitrification (Anoxic Chamber) - Further removal of BODs, CODs, and conversion of Ammonia and Nitrates to Nitrogen through biological process of using activated sludge with oxygen present in nitrates.
  4. Secondary Treatment (Aerobic Chamber) - Effective removal of BODs, CODs, Ammonia and Nitrates through Oxidation (AOP - Advanced Oxidation Process)/ Oxygenation thereby converting complex hydrocarbons to simpler forms like Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Water (H2O).
  5. Tertiary Treatment (Sedimentation/Membrane Separation) - Further reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids) in water, improving water quality, clarity and odor.
  6. Advanced Treatment (Disinfection) - Allows Chemical and/or UV Treatment to kill all other forms of bacteria, viruses and coliforms present in semi-treated sewage water . This step is necessary to be able to reuse wastewater to non-potable applications.
  7. Sludge Digestion (Recovery) - This last step of the sewage treatment process allows the full recovery of waste sludge generated from the series of sewage treatment process. This allows conversion of waste sludge via sludge digestion to other recoverable/usable form i.e. (Fertilizers) in order to make sewage treatment process effective and sustainable (Zero Waste Disposal).

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